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Prime Minister Theresa May announced the government's intention not to seek permanent membership of the European single market or the EU customs union after leaving the EU   and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.
Negotiations with the EU officially started in June , aiming to complete the withdrawal agreement by October There is a broad consensus in existing economic research that Brexit is likely to reduce the UK's real per capita income in the medium term and long term.
The precise impact on the UK depends on whether the process will be a "hard" or a "soft" Brexit. In the wake of the referendum, many new pieces of Brexit-related jargon have entered popular use.
European politics , United Kingdom. In these became known as the European Communities EC. The UK attempted to join in and , but these applications were vetoed by the President of France , Charles de Gaulle.
The opposition Labour Party contested the October general election with a commitment to renegotiate Britain's terms of membership of the EC, believing them to be unfavourable, and then hold a referendum on whether to remain in the EC on the new terms.
Despite significant division within the ruling Labour Party  all major political parties and the mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC.
On 5 June , The Labour Party campaigned in the general election on a commitment to withdraw from the EC without a referendum,  although after a heavy defeat Labour changed its policy.
In October , under pressure from senior ministers and despite Margaret Thatcher's deep reservations, the United Kingdom joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism ERM , with the pound sterling pegged to the deutschmark.
Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister the following month, amid Conservative Party divisions arising partly from her increasingly Eurosceptic views.
The United Kingdom and Italy were forced to withdraw from the ERM in September , after the pound sterling and the lira came under pressure from currency speculation " Black Wednesday ".
Under the Maastricht Treaty , the European Communities became the European Union on 1 November ,  reflecting the evolution of the organisation from an economic union into a political union.
In , Sir James Goldsmith formed the Referendum Party to contest the general election on a platform of providing a referendum on the nature of the United Kingdom's relationship with the EU.
The Referendum Party disbanded after Goldsmith's death in It achieved third place in the UK during the European elections , second place in the European elections and first place in the European elections , with This was the first time since the general election that any party other than the Labour or Conservative parties had taken the largest share of the vote in a nationwide election.
Both pro- and anti-EU views have had majority support at different times since In a statistical analysis published in April , Professor John Curtice of Strathclyde University defined Euroscepticism as the wish to sever or reduce the powers of the EU, and conversely Europhilia as the desire to preserve or increase the powers of the EU.
Euroscepticism should, however, not be confused with the wish to leave the EU: In , Prime Minister David Cameron initially rejected calls for a referendum on the UK's EU membership,  but then suggested the possibility of a future referendum to endorse his proposed renegotiation of Britain's relationship with the EU.
The Conservative Party won the general election with a majority. Soon afterwards the European Union Referendum Act was introduced into Parliament to enable the referendum.
Cameron favoured remaining in a reformed European Union, and sought to renegotiate on four key points: In December , opinion polls showed a clear majority in favour of remaining in the EU; they also showed support would drop if Cameron did not negotiate adequate safeguards for non-eurozone member states, and restrictions on benefits for EU citizens.
The outcome of the renegotiations was announced in February Some limits to in-work benefits for new EU immigrants were agreed, but before they could be applied, a country such as the UK would have to get permission from the European Commission and then from the European Council.
In a speech to the House of Commons on 22 February , Cameron announced a referendum date of 23 June , and commented on the renegotiation settlement.
The official campaign group for leaving the EU was Vote Leave  after a contest for the designation with Leave. The result was announced on the morning of 24 June: A petition calling for a second referendum attracted more than four million signatures,   but was rejected by the government on 9 July.
According to Thomas Sampson, an economist at the London School of Economics , "Older and less-educated voters were more likely to vote 'leave' A majority of white voters wanted to leave, but only 33 percent of Asian voters and 27 percent of black voters chose leave.
There was no gender split in the vote, with 52 percent of both men and women voting to leave. Leaving the European Union received support from across the political spectrum Voting to leave the European Union was strongly associated with holding socially conservative political beliefs, opposing cosmopolitanism, and thinking life in Britain is getting worse rather than better.
Second, poor economic outcomes at the individual or area level were associated with voting to leave Third, support for leaving the European Union is strongly associated with self-reported opposition to immigration, but not with exposure to immigration.
After the result was declared, Cameron announced that he would resign by October. Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn lost a vote of confidence among his parliamentary party, and an unsuccessful leadership challenge was launched.
On 11 May , the Electoral Commission found against Leave. EU, which ran a separate campaign to the official pro-Brexit group Vote Leave, following its investigations into alleged irregularities during the referendum campaign.
EU's co-founder Arron Banks has stated that he rejects the outcome of the investigation and will be challenging it in court.
Under the Article 50 invocation procedure , a member notifies the European Council , whereupon the EU is required to negotiate and conclude an agreement with [the leaving] State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its future relationship with the [European] Union.
The negotiation period is limited to two years unless extended, after which the treaties cease to apply. Although the Referendum Act did not expressly require Article 50 to be invoked,  the UK government stated that it would expect a leave vote to be followed by withdrawal.
The Supreme Court ruled in the Miller case in January that the government needed parliamentary approval to trigger Article It has been argued that the Article 50 withdrawal process may be halted unilaterally by the British government,  with which opinion the author of Article 50 itself, Lord Kerr , has expressed agreement.
Both parties to the withdrawal negotiation are bound by Article 50 3 , which states explicitly that the EU treaties will cease to apply "from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after" the withdrawal notification unless the EU Council and UK agree to extend the two-year period.
On the EU side, the EU's Directives for the negotiation of an agreement notes that "The Agreement should set a withdrawal date which is at the latest 30 March at Central European Time — "unless the European Council, in agreement with the United Kingdom, unanimously decides to extend this period in accordance with Article 50 3 of the Treaty on European Union.
On the British side, the European Union Withdrawal Act , section 20 1 defines "exit day" as "29 March at The British and EU negotiators agreed that initial negotiations, relating especially to residency rights, would commence in June immediately after the French presidential and parliamentary elections , and full negotiations, relating especially to trading agreements, could commence in October immediately after the German federal election, In November , May proposed that Britain and the other EU countries mutually guarantee the residency rights of the 3.
In January , the Prime Minister presented 12 negotiating objectives and confirmed that the UK government would not seek permanent single market membership.
The statutory period for negotiation began on 29 March , when the UK formally submitted a letter notifying withdrawal. The letter called for a "deep and special relationship" between the UK and the EU, and warned that failure to reach an agreement would result in EU-UK trade under World Trade Organisation terms, and a weakening of the UK's co-operation in the fight against crime and terrorism.
Instead, the UK would seek a free trade agreement with the EU. On 29 April , immediately after the first round of French presidential elections, the EU27 heads of state accepted negotiating guidelines prepared by Tusk.
On 22 May , the European Council authorised its negotiators to start the Brexit talks and it adopted its negotiating directives.
On 22 June , Prime Minister May guaranteed that no EU citizen living legally in the UK would be forced to leave, and offered that any EU citizen who lived in the UK for more than five years until an unspecified deadline between March and March would enjoy the same rights as a UK citizen, conditional on the EU providing the same offer to British expatriates living in the EU.
The second round of negotiations began in mid-July Progress was made on the Northern Irish border question; UK negotiators requested a detailed breakdown of the "divorce bill" demand; and the EU negotiators criticised the UK's citizenship rights offer.
On 16 August , the UK government disclosed the first of several papers detailing British ambitions following Brexit, discussing trade and customs arrangements.
The third round of negotiations began on 28 August There was disagreement over the financial settlement; The Irish Times explained that British negotiators referred to the seven-year Multiannual Financial Framework MFF or Maff for the period — agreed by member states and the EU parliament as a "planning tool" for the next period rather than a legally-binding financial obligation on member states.
The British case is that the MFF sets ceilings on spending under various headings and is later radically revised during the annual budget process when real legal obligations on each state arises.
This contrasts with the EU Commission's methodology for calculating the UK Brexit bill which involves dividing the MFF into the shares historically agreed by each member state.
On 5 September , Davis said that "concrete progress" had been made over the summer in areas such as protecting the rights of British expats in the EU to access healthcare and over the future of the Irish border, while significant differences over the "divorce bill" remained.
The paper envisages that a "unique" solution would be permissible here; in other words, any such exceptional Irish solution would not necessarily be a template for post-Brexit relationships with the other EU members.
On 22 September , May announced further details of her Brexit proposal. The fourth round of talks began on 25 September, with Barnier declaring he had no mandate from the EU27 to discuss a transition deal suggested by Prime Minister May.
Davis reiterated that the UK could honour commitments made during its EU membership only in the context of a future "special partnership" deal with the EU.
EU negotiators have stated that an agreement must be reached between Britain and the EU by October in order to leave time for national parliaments to endorse Brexit.
On 9 October , May announced to the British Parliament that Britain could operate as an "independent trading nation" after Brexit if no trade deal is reached with the EU.
In December , EU leaders announced an agreement to begin the next phase of negotiations, with talks on a transition period after March to begin in early and discussions on the future UK-EU relationship, including trade and security, to begin in March.
After elections in March , the Italian president appointed a eurosceptic Italian government on 1 June ,  a development expected to affect the Brexit outcome.
On 19 June , the UK and the EU published a joint statement outlining agreements at the negotiators' level.
Michel Barnier praised the "dedication and commitment" of the negotiating teams, and said progress had been made in issues like customs, VAT and the European nuclear agreement, Euratom.
On 12 September , the bill passed its first vote and second reading by a margin of votes to votes in the House of Commons.
After the Act became law on 26 June , the European Council decided on 29 June to renew its call on Member States and Union institutions to step up their work on preparedness at all levels and for all outcomes.
The Withdrawal Act fixes the period ending 21 January for the government to decide on how to proceed if the negotiations have not reached agreement in principle on both the withdrawal arrangements and the framework for the future relationship between the UK and EU; while, alternatively, making future ratification of the withdrawal agreement as a treaty between the UK and EU depend upon the prior enactment of another act of Parliament for approving the final terms of withdrawal when the current Brexit negotiations are completed.
In any event, the act does not alter the two-year period for negotiating allowed by Article 50 that ends at the latest on 29 March if the UK has not by then ratified a withdrawal agreement.
The Withdrawal Act which became law in June allows for various outcomes including no negotiated settlement. A report published in March by the Institute for Government commented that, in addition to the European Union Withdrawal bill, primary and secondary legislation will be needed to cover the gaps in policy areas such as customs, immigration and agriculture.
In and , the House of Lords published a series of reports on Brexit-related subjects, including:. Replying to questions at a parliamentary committee about Parliament's involvement in voting on the outcome of the negotiations with the EU, the Prime Minister said that "delivering on the vote of the British people to leave the European Union" was her priority.
The shadow Brexit secretary, Keir Starmer , commented that the government did not want a vote at the beginning of the process, to trigger Article 50, nor a vote at the end.
Opinion polls in the fortnight following the referendum suggested that the immediate reaction in the Netherlands and other European countries was a decline in support for Eurosceptic movements.
A general election was held on 8 June , announced at short notice by the new Prime Minister Theresa May. The Conservative Party, Labour and UKIP made manifesto pledges to implement the referendum, although the Labour manifesto differed in its approach to Brexit negotiations, such as unilaterally offering permanent residence to EU immigrants.
Labour gained significantly on votes and seats, retaining its position as the second-largest party. On 26 June , Conservatives and the DUP reached a confidence and supply agreement whereby the DUP would back the Conservatives in key votes in the House of Commons over the course of the parliament.
Six weeks after the referendum, the Bank of England sought to cushion the potential shock to the economy by lowering interest rates to the record low of 0.
Since the referendum, absolute employment has continuously risen to previously unrecorded levels, and by early relative unemployment reached its lowest level 4.
During the UK continued to be the favourite European destination for foreign physical investment as distinct from company takeovers , creating 50, new jobs, ahead of Germany 31, jobs and France.
Factors mentioned were sterling devaluation since the referendum, broadband, and American investment.
Official figures for June published in February showed that net EU immigration to the UK had slowed to about , immigrants per year, corresponding to the immigration level of Meanwhile, immigration from non-EU countries had increased.
Taken together, the two inflows into the UK result in an only slightly reduced net immigration of , newcomers in the year to June The Head of the Office of National Statistics suggested that Brexit could well be a factor for the slowdown in EU immigration, but cautioned there might be other reasons.
The Labour Party made a freedom of information request for details about the reports, but DExEU said that publishing the information would undermine policy formulation, and that it needed to carry out policymaking in a "safe space".
The leader of the house, Andrea Leadsom , said that there could be some delay while ministers decided how to release the information without prejudicing Brexit negotiations.
Immigration was cited as the second-most important reason for those voting to Leave. A paper by King's College London economists Giuseppe Forte and Jonathan Portes found that "while future migration flows will be driven by a number of factors, macroeconomic and otherwise, Brexit and the end of free movement will result in a large fall in immigration from EEA countries to the UK.
However, almost any plausible outcome will result in an increase in regulatory burdens on business; a reduction in the flows of both unskilled and skilled workers; and an increase in illegal working.
The key question for policymakers will be how to minimise these negative impacts while at the same time addressing domestic political demands for increased control without antagonising our EU partners to the point of prejudicing other key aspects of the negotiations.
This will not be an easy task. The decline in EEA immigration is likely to have an adverse impact on the British health sector. Official figures in March indicated that EU immigration to the UK continued to exceed emigration, but the difference between immigration and emigration "net migration" had fallen to its lowest for three years.
Research on the effects that have already materialised in the United Kingdom since the referendum results show that the referendum result pushed up UK inflation by 1.
According to a Financial Times analysis, the Brexit referendum results had by December reduced national British income by between 0.
There is overwhelming or near-unanimous agreement among economists that leaving the European Union will adversely affect the British economy in the medium- and long-term.
However, there is substantial uncertainty over how large the effect will be, with plausible estimates of the cost ranging between 1 and 10 percent of the UK's income per capita.
Most economists, including the UK Treasury, argue that being in the EU has a strong positive effect on trade and as a result the UK's trade would be worse off if it left the EU.
Due to their longstanding trade integration with the UK, Irish regions have levels of Brexit exposure, which are similar to those of the UK regions with the lowest levels of exposure, namely London and northern parts of Scotland.
Meanwhile, the other most risk-exposed EU regions are all in southern Germany, with levels of risk which are typically half that of any UK or Irish region, and one third of that displayed by many UK regions.
There is also a very noticeable economic geography logic to the levels of exposure with north-western European regions typically being the most exposed to Brexit, while regions in southern and eastern Europe are barely affected at all by Brexit, at least in terms of the trade linkages Former Governor of the Bank of England Mervyn King commented that warnings of economic doom regarding leaving the EU were overstated and that the UK should leave the single market and probably the customs union in order to gain more opportunities, which would lead to improved British economic performance.
Short-term macroeconomic forecasts by the Bank of England and other banks of what would happen immediately after the Brexit referendum proved to be too pessimistic.
On 5 January Andy Haldane , the Chief Economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England , said that the BoE's own forecast predicting an immediate economic downturn due to the referendum result was inaccurate and noted strong market performance immediately after the referendum,    although some have pointed to prices rising faster than wages.
Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority , currently based in London.
As suggested by the Scottish Government before the referendum,  the First Minister of Scotland announced that officials were planning an independence referendum due to the result of Scotland voting to remain in the European Union when England and Wales voted to leave.
Sturgeon called for a "phased return" of an independent Scotland back to the EU. After the referendum, First Minister Sturgeon suggested that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU,  though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.
This Act allows for all devolved policy areas to remain within the remit of the Scottish Parliament and reduces the executive power upon exit day that the UK Withdrawal Bill provides for Ministers of the Crown.
Aviation may be heavily affected. The EU has rules allowing its airlines to fly anywhere in the union, also domestic, which will not apply to the UK anymore.
The British airline EasyJet decided to relocate its headquarter. The EU also has treaties with many countries regulating the right to fly over, take off and land there.
Unless permission or new treaties with the UK are made, aviation to and from the UK may stop. In the event of a no deal Brexit the French government has said that trains in the Channel Tunnel may not be allowed into France.
Ferries will continue, but with obstacles such as customs checks. The Financial Times said that there were approximately international agreements, spanning non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.
A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market.
There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force. There is concern about whether the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland becomes a "hard border" with customs and passport checks on the border,  and whether this could affect the Good Friday Agreement that was seen as instrumental in bringing peace to Northern Ireland.
This has been opposed by the British government. There is freedom of movement for all EU nationals within the Common Travel Area and there are no customs or fixed immigration controls at the border.
Since , the border has been essentially invisible. It is therefore possible that the border will return to being a "hard" one, with fewer, controlled, crossing posts and a customs infrastructure.
Both the EU and the UK have agreed this should be avoided. We will not continue to guard the border for Britain if it's no longer in the European Union," indicating that the juxtaposed controls would end with a leave vote.
French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be "threatened" by a leave vote.
Gibraltar is outside the European Union's common customs area and common commercial policy and so has a customs border with Spain.
Nevertheless, the territory remains within the European Union until Brexit is complete. During the campaign leading up to the referendum  the Chief Minister of Gibraltar warned that Brexit posed a threat to Gibraltar's safety.
After the result Spain's Foreign Minister renewed calls for joint Spanish—British control of the peninsula. In April , Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis announced that Spain hopes to sign off on a bilateral agreement with Britain over Gibraltar before October so as not to hinder a Brexit transition deal.
Talks between London and Madrid had progressed well. While reiterating the Spanish long-term aim of "recovering" Gibraltar, he said that Spain would not hold Gibraltar as a "hostage" to the EU negotiations.
Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany.
Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2.
In total, , jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU.
The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty.
According to the Lisbon Treaty , Council of the EU decisions made by qualified majority voting can only be blocked if at least four members of the Council form a blocking minority.
This rule was originally developed to prevent the three most populous members Germany, France, Britain from dominating the Council of the EU.
With Brexit, the EU would lose its second-largest economy, the country with the third-largest population and "the financial capital of the world", as the German newspaper Münchner Merkur put it.
Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: The departure of the UK is expected to have a major effect on the EU.
The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled leading to speculation that it could enable the other EU countries to enforce specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.
The EU will need to decide on the revised apportionment of seats in the European Parliament in time for the next European Parliament election, expected to be held in June , when the United Kingdom's 73 MEPs will have vacated their seats.
In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.
Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.
The combined EU fishing fleets land about 6 million tonnes of fish per year,  of which about 3 million tonnes are from UK waters.
The UK government announced in July that it would end the convention in Loss of access to UK waters will particularly affect the Irish fishing industry which obtains a third of its catch there.
The policy is generally considered a disadvantage to fish-rich countries and is a major reason why Norway and Iceland are not members.
Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article German foreign secretary Frank-Walter Steinmeier met Britain's foreign secretary Boris Johnson on 4 November ; Johnson stressed the importance of British-German relationships, whereas Steinmeier responded that the German view was that the UK should have voted to stay in the EU and that the German priority now was to preserve the remaining union of 27 members.
There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice. A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental. Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".
On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead. These consist of an end to European Court of Justice jurisdiction, withdrawal from the single market with a "comprehensive free-trade agreement" replacing this, a new customs agreement excluding the common external tariff and the EU's common commercial policy , an end to free movement of people , co-operation in crime and terrorism, collaboration in areas of science and technology, engagement with devolved administrations, maintaining the Common Travel Area with Ireland , and preserving existing workers' rights.
She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.
The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".
EU negotiator Guy Verhofstadt , the European parliament's chief negotiator, said that: That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.
An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".
Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.
Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.
The results of these polls are shown in the table below. There have also been opinion polls on how people would vote in a second referendum on the same question.
On 6 July , the UK Cabinet agreed a statement at Chequers that set out a proposal for the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union ,  following which two members of the Cabinet resigned.
She proposed a referendum with three options: Voters would be asked to mark a first and second preference using the supplementary vote system.
If there were no majority for any particular option among first-preference votes, the third-placed option would be eliminated and second preferences would be used to determine the winner from the two remaining options.
The following table shows opinion polls that have been conducted on how people would vote in such a three-option referendum. The table shows the poll results for a first round in which all three options would be available, and for a second round in which only the top two options in the first round would be available.
There have been opinion polls to gauge support for a second referendum on whether to accept or reject the final Brexit deal.
The response of artists and writers to Brexit has in general been negative, reflecting a reported overwhelming percentage of people involved in Britain's creative industries voting against leaving the European Union.
Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.
It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.
This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.
These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March Rabbitman is a dark comic fantasy in which the events that lead to the election of a right-wing populist American president, who happens also to be a rabbit, and Britain's vote to leave the European Union, were the result of a series of Faustian pacts with the Devil.
As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.
Mark Billingham's Love Like Blood published 1 June is a crime thriller in which Brexit sees a rise in xenophobic hate crime.
Post-Brexit Britain is also the setting for Amanda Craig 's The Lie of the Land published 13 June , a satirical novel set ten years after the vote to leave the European Union, in which an impoverished middle class couple from Islington in north London are forced to move from the heart of the pro-European Union capital, to the heart of the pro-Brexit countryside in Devon.
Brexit is also the baseline for Douglas Board's comic political thriller Time of Lies published 23 June In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.
Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. Stanley Johnson 's Kompromat scheduled for July is a political thriller that suggests the vote to leave the European Union was a result of Russian influence on the referendum, although Johnson has insisted his book is not intended to point the finger at Russia's secret services , but is "just meant to be fun.
An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.
In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an 81 minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.
In , newly elected Liberal Democrats leader Vince Cable criticised 'pop up' anti-Brexit parties formed following the referendum, saying of those groups' policies " From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
United Kingdom's planned withdrawal from the European Union. Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum.
People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum. Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out. Calls for second vote. Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote.
Other organisations campaigning for a second vote. Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history.
Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Russian interference in the Brexit referendum.
European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology. Continuing UK relationship with the EU.
Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union. This will be midnight Central European Time.
Department for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 18 January PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March". Retrieved 2 October The New York Times.
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The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.
Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.
Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 24 June The Brexit vote two years ago has damaged the UK economy, as a weaker pound has squeezed household incomes and uncertainty has hit investment.
Retrieved 21 November The output cost of the Brexit vote". Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 29 September National Institute Economic Review. Oxford Review of Economic Policy.
Retrieved 25 June The what, when, and why of "Brexit " ". Oxford University Press, March